Spearman’s two-factor theory proposes that intelligence has two components: general intelligence (“g”) and specific ability (“s”). To explain the differences in performance on different tasks, Spearman hypothesized that the “s” component was specific to a certain aspect of intelligence.
What is the S factor in psychology?
An s-factor score represents a person’s ability within one particular area. Put all the s-factors together, and you get the g-factor. Commonly measured s-factors of intelligence include memory, attention and concentration, verbal comprehension, vocabulary, spatial skills, and abstract reasoning.
What is the difference between G factor and S factor?
The ”g” factor is shared with every other cognitive or intellectual activity of the person, but the ”s” factor is not shared with different intellectual activities, it’s specific to a particular activity.
What are the characteristics of S factor?
Characteristics of ‘S’ Factor:
- It is learned and acquired in the environment.
- It varies from activity to activity in the same individual.
- Individuals differ in the amount of ‘S’ ability.
What is the factor that Charles Spearman called g?
general intelligence factor
The British scientist Charles Spearman postulated that there is one dominant general intelligence factor (also called the G factor), that governs all cognitive abilities. Not everybody agrees. Some claim that there are multiple intelligence factors, which are (more or less) independent.
What is S factor mean?
specific factor (s factor)
1. ( symbol: s) a specialized ability that is postulated to come into play in particular kinds of cognitive tasks. Specific factors, such as mathematical ability, are contrasted with the general factor (g), which underlies every cognitive performance. Also called special factor. [
What does S factor stand for?
By. Abbreviated designation for a specific or special factor which has been established using factor analysis in abilities testing; a specific test helps determine which particular factor is needed to achieve favorable completion within a rated skill set. S FACTOR: “The S factor was ambiguous, at best.”
What do you mean by g factor and S factor of intelligence?
Spearman concluded that there is a single g-factor which represents an individual’s general intelligence across multiple abilities, and that a second factor, s, refers to an individual’s specific ability in one particular area (Spearman, as cited in Thomson, 1947).
What is meant by S in thurstone’s multi factor theory?
The tests that Spearman used in his study were quite different from each other because if the tests were identical to each other, the “s” factor (specific ability) may have overlapped, which would have resulted in additional correlations among the different variables, while the tests that Thurstone used in his research …
What is concept of intelligence?
The concept of intelligence refers to the “relatively decontextualized ability to reason and to address new problems without content-specific knowledge” (Baumert et al., 2009). From: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), 2015.
What is intelligence according to Binet?
For example, Binet (Binet & Simon, 1905) defined intelligence in terms of judgment, practical sense, initiative, and adaptability; whereas Wechsler (1958) later defined it as “the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment” ( …
What are the 3 types of intelligence?
Figure 7.12 Sternberg’s theory identifies three types of intelligence: practical, creative, and analytical.
What are the 4 theories of intelligence?
The theories are grouped into four major theory types: (1) psychometric theories; (2) cognitive theories; (3) cognitive-contextual theories; and (4) biological theories.
When did Spearman proposed two-factor theory of intelligence?
Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory:
The English psychologist, Charles Spearman (1863-1945), in 1904 proposed his theory of intelligence called two-factor theory. According to him intellectual abilities are comprised of two factors, namely; the general ability known as G-factor and specific Abilities known as S-factors.
What is the difference between general intelligence and specific intelligence?
Someone with a high level of general intelligence will be able to adapt to many situations and use this ability to understand a variety of concepts. Specific intelligence is one’s reasoning ability that involves specific task performance.
What is thurstone’s theory of intelligence?
Louis Leon Thurstone proposed theory in 1930’s that intelligence is composed of several different factors. The seven primary mental abilities in Thurstone’s model were verbal comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed and reasoning.
What is Guilford theory of intelligence?
Guilford’s Structure of Intellect (SOI) Model is a multiple intelligences theory. He believed that intelligence wasn’t a monolithic, global attribute but a combination of multiple abilities, that were relatively independent. He applied the factor analytical method to learn these mental abilities.
What does the g factor explain?
General intelligence, also known as g factor, refers to the existence of a broad mental capacity that influences performance on cognitive ability measures.
What evidence supports Spearman’s concept of the g factor in intelligence?
another. What evidence did Spearman cite to support his concept of a “g” factor in intelligence? Most people who do well on one intellectual task do well on others tasks also. people who do well on one intellectual test also do well on other intellectual tests.
When was g factor created?
General intelligence is referred to the existence of a mental capacity that influences the performance on cognitive level. The existence of general intelligence was proposed by Charles Spearman in 1904. General Intelligence is also known as g factor, but in simple terms, it can just be called intelligence.
What is g and who developed the term?
British psychologist Charles Spearman (1863–1945) described a concept he referred to as general intelligence or the g factor. After using a technique known as factor analysis to examine some mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar.
What is intelligent PDF?
Intelligent PDF function allows schematic to be viewed in Adobe PDF reader with descendible hierarchies and component links etc.
Which factor is the best predictor of intelligence?
Empirical evidence suggests that especially parental education, parental income, and maternal IQ are important predictors of intelligence. Parental education together with maternal IQ and the child’s sex were found to account for 24% of the variance in IQ at age 5 .
Who created the multiple intelligence theory?
Beyond these three categories, many theories of and approaches toward human learning potential have been established. Among them is the theory of multiple intelligences developed by Howard Gardner, Ph.
What are the 7 different types of intelligence?
Exploring The Seven Different Intelligences
- Word Smart (linguistic intelligence)
- Math Smart (numerical/reasoning/logic intelligence)
- Physically Smart (kinesthetic intelligence)
- Music Smart (musical intelligence)
- People Smart (interpersonal intelligence)
- Self Smart (intrapersonal intelligence)
What are the 8 types of intelligence?
Eight types of intelligence
- Logical-mathematical intelligence. …
- Linguistic intelligence. …
- Spatial Intelligence. …
- Musical Intelligence. …
- Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence. …
- Intrapersonal Intelligence. …
- Interpersonal Intelligence. …
- Naturalistic intelligence.